Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 3 (3): 140-144, 2008
© IDOSI Publications, 2008
The Effect of Magnetic Water on Growth and Quality Improvement of Poultry
1M. Gholizadeh, 3H. Arabshahi, 2M.R. Saeidi and 4B. Mahdavi
1Chemistry Department,Tarbiat Moallem University, Sabzevar, Iran
2Food Industry Dept., Azad University, Sabzevar, Iran 3Physics Department, Tarbiat Moallem University, Sabzevar, Iran 4Chemistry Department,Tarbiat Moallem University, Sabzevar, Iran
Abstract: We have investigated the effect of magnetic water treatment on growth and quality improvement of poultry. Some of poultry characteristics have been studied for about 100 chicken samples, including the nonmagnetic samples (drinking by ordinary water) and magnetic samples (drinking by magnetic water). Based on the results of our experiments, magnetic samples have about 200 gr meat more than the nonmagnetic samples. The magnetic samples have also shown other advantages like, increasing in meat fat ratio, livability and European production efficiency, a decrease in mortality, sick case and feed reduction and a high quality of final product. Statistical calculations are in fair agreement with our experimental results.
Key words: Magnetic water treatment % Poultry improvement % Mortality % Feed reduction INTRODUCTION formation on heat exchange surfaces is greatly reduced or
The magnetic technology has been cited in the Donaldson emphasizes that in order to understand
literature and investigated since the turn of the 19th
the effect, you first need to know what the scale is. Salt
century, when Lodestones and naturally occurring being heated, cooled and mixed with chemicals in all sorts magnetic mineral formations were used to decrease the of heating and processing plants are not necessarily formation of scale in cooking and laundry applications. well-behaved .
Today, advances in magnetic and electrostatic scale For example, in desalination, an increase in control technologies have led to their becoming reliable temperature causes the following sequence:
energy savers in certain applications [1-4].
For example, magnetic or electrostatic scale control
2 HCOCO2 CO
- H O
technologies can be used as a replacement for most water- softening equipment. Specifically, chemical softening (lime or lime-soda softening), ion exchange and reverse osmosis, when used for the control of hardness, could potentially be replaced by non-chemical water
3 3 2 2
Ca2 CO2 CaCO (calcite)
Ca2 CO2 CaCO (aragonite) 3 3
conditioning technology. This would include applications The lime scale problem in hard water arises because
both to cooling water treatment and boiler water treatment the solubility of CaCO3 in once-through and recirculating systems [5-6]. temperature .
decreases with increasing
The operating principles for the electrostatic units are Despite its ubiquity, there is relatively little scientific much different. Instead of causing the dissolved ions to literature on magnetic water treatment. It is not clear now come together and form non-adherent scale, a surface or even if, it works. Unlike chemical water, softening, charge is imposed on the ions so that they repel instead magnetic treatment should have no direct effect on water of attract each other. Thus the two ions (positive and chemistry (unless the magnets are in contact with the negative, or cations and anions, respectively) of a kind water) yet, it is claimed to alter the morphology and needed to form scale are never able to come close enough adhesion of calcium carbonate scale . Published data together to initiate the scale-forming reaction. The end are often contradictory. For example, there is some dispute result for a user is the same with either technology; scale as to whether the deposits of calcium carbonate from
Corresponding Author: M.R. Saeidi, Food Industry Dept., Azad University, Sabzevar, Iran
Fig. 1: The magnetic instrument and stainless steel strainer
Fig. 3: Effective factors in the magnetic field A: Lines of the magnetic field
B: Direction of the fluid
The equipment was connected to a pipeline system from one end and the other end to the water pump (Fig. 2). In our experiment water had to flow through a coaxial magnetic gap, with a magnetic field area about 1.25 cm2. The flow rate of water was checked before the installation. The direction of flow of water was adjusted to be perpendicular to the field. A stainless steel strainer was placed inside the equipment to capture the suspended
impurities present in the water.
The general operating principle for the magnetic technology is a result of the physics of interaction between a magnetic field and moving electric charge, in
Fig. 2: Installation of Aqua Correct on the pipeline system this case in the form of ion. When ions pass through the
magnetic field, a force is exerted on each ion. The forces magnetically treated water are predominantly calcite or on ions of opposite charges are in opposite directions. aragonite. These are the two common natural forms of The redirections of the particles tends to increase the CaCO3, with rhombohedral and orthorhombic crystal frequency with which ions of opposite charge collide and structures, respectively [10-11]. combine to form a mineral precipitate, or insoluble The efficacy of magnetic treatment is reported to last compounds. Probably this reaction takes place in from tens of minutes to hundred of hours; there is a installation of poultry drinking water fed. In other words, review of the literature by Baker and Judd . The magnetic fields interact with a resultant force generated in authors claim the important factors which promote a direction perpendicular to the plan formed by the
magnetic forces (responsible for the changes in magnetic and electric field vectors (Fig. 3). crystallization) are the conductivity of the solution, This forces acts on the current carrying entity, the the linear flow velocity of the fluid and the flux density of ion. Positively charged particles will move in a direction in the field. accord with the right-hand rule of Lorantz. Negatively
Upon reviewing the Literature, we arrived at the charged particles will move in the opposite direction. The conclusion that most reported successful applications of result of these forces on the ions is that, in general Aqua Correct have occurred in continuously recirculating positively ions (Calcium and Magnesium primarily) and systems enabling repeated treatment of the process water negatively charged ions (Carbonate and Sulfate primarily) (specially in the industrial boilers). are directed toward each other with increased velocity.
The increased velocity should result in an increase in the Experimental: To have a permanent magnet in a compact number of collisions between the particles, with the result form a unit called Aqua Correct is used (Fig. 1). This being formation of insoluble particular matter. Once a equipment has a coaxial permanent system which can precipitate is formed, it serves as a foundation of further produce a magnetic field strength as high as 6000 G. Aqua growth of the scale crystal. The treatment efficiency Correct has a free and smooth internal flow which exclude increase with increasing hardness since more ions are the presence of turbulence. The function is pure magnetic present in solution, thus each ion will need to travel a physical. So the crystal structure of lime scale will change shorter distance before encountering as ion of opposite and can easily remove it. charge (Fig. 4).
Fig. 4: Configuration of ionic particles in magnetic field
C After installation of the magnetic instrument pipelines system were automatically cleared and the solid material became loose and fell off. Thus, the life span of the system could be increased [14-16].
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The chemical properties of magnetic water on poultry
When the scale-forming reaction take place within a characteristics before and after the magnetic instrument poultry’s pipeline, the mineral form of the most common was studied. They were weighted by an analytical balance scale is called Calcite. Calcite is an adherent mineral that at the end of every week. This method was applied to the causes the build-up of the scale on the pipeline surface. magnetic and nonmagnetic groups in a period of sixty When the reaction between positively charged and days. After weighting all samples for each group the negatively charged ions occurs at low temperature, medium weight were calculated (Table 1).
relative to a pipeline surface, the mineral form is usually The compared curves in two ways are shown in aragonite. Aragonite is much less adherent to pipeline figures 5 and 6. Repeatability of above mentioned method surfaces and tends to form smaller grained or softer scale was examined during two years (Figs. 5 and 6). Using deposits, as opposed to the monolithic sheets of scale water without additives and applying the magnetic common on poultry’s pipeline surfaces. These smaller treatment technology resulted in no traces scale deposits grained or softer scale deposits are stable upon heating on the surface of the poultry’s pipelines and installation. and can be carried through out a pipeline while causing The old poultry’s installation system on which the little or no apparent damage. This transport property instrument had been previously installed, without the allows the mineral to be moved through a system to a Aqua Correct, demonstrated a badly internal corrosion in place where it is convenient to collect (in a strainer) and pipeline and because of the formation of a thick coating of remove the solid precipitate. insoluble salts, before its being connected to the Before installation, the conditions of the poultry as equipment. After being connected with the magnetic well as the physical, microbiological and chemical apparatus, the installation system and pipeline were properties of water were carefully studied. About 300 automatically cleared and the solid material became loose days after installation, the filter was checked. Now, the and fell off. Thus the life span of the installation system
effect of magnetic water on the improvement of poultry of poultry expectantly increased.
was being examined. To this end, 100 chicken samples, The magnetic device never affected the properties of including 50 being the nonmagnetic samples and 50 the water. Its properties and qualities unchanged and pH magnetic samples were selected at the corner of flocks by had no effect on the scale formation due to the use of the the same conditions. On the basis of over one year of equipment. Thus, the poultry can take benefit some of the research in this field, we have reached the following following advantages when it is being connected to the conclusions: magnetic device,
C The magnetic water treatment will require a sufficiently fast, continuous flow of fluid. If magnetohydrodynamic forces are responsible for the action of the device, continuous fluid flow is required to generate these forces.
C The magnetic field must be of sufficient strength and oriented 90oc relative to the direction of fluid flow
C The new pipeline fitted with the Aqua Correct was found to be well protected from scale formation and internal corrosion; whereas the pipe without the equipment was badly damaged by scale formation and internal, corrosion occurred inside the pipe (Fig. 5).
Table 1: Results obtained during using magnetic and nonmagnetic water
Normal water Magnetic water
Date/day Medium Weight/gr Medium Weight/gr
58 1700 1900
Fig. 5: (a) Before installation the magnetic apparatus
- After installation the magnetic apparatus
1 2 9 16 23 30 37 44 51 58
Fig. 7: The effect of magnetic water on the improvement of poultry during sixty days (column curve)
1 2 9 16 23 30 37 44 51 58
Using Fisher’s table it is found that Fcritical > Fcalculate.
Also using Astevant statistics we can shows that population of two magnetic and nonmagnetic groups will not equal. Thus the magnetic water cause the meat weight of samples increased, bescuse we have
Fig. 6: The effect of magnetic water on the improvement of poultry during sixty days
S 2 S 2
C The increase of meat fat ratio and sheen of fur in
C Mortality and sick cases among flock decreases with freedom degree of significantly.
C It is possible to reduce the time necessary for
chickens reaching the required weight.
C Poultry’s become more energetic which in fact is first
of all, the sign of their health.
C Magnetic water is able to increase the solubility of minerals, thus facilitating the better transfer of the nutrients to all parts of the body of poultry via the
membrane. Statistical calculations have also shown an C Reduce the feed of poultry. increasing quality growth of chickens which drink C To get biologically active water which exerts with magnetic water. So this confirms the economical favorable effect on the poultry improvement because advantages of using magnetic water instead of
in nonmagnetic water, dissolved particles do not ordinary water. settle down, that is the reason why the water is dirty.
This fact is conductive to increase the amount of CONCLUSION
bacteria. But in magnetic water which we have
examined all dissolved particles and salts down very The new magnetic system fitted with the Aqua quickly and the water becomes clean, biologically Correct was found to be well protected from scale active and all pathogenic bacteria is destroyed. formation and internal corrosion occurring inside the
C Statistical calculations shows variance of two group pipelines. The stainless steel strainer placed before the
chicken is not equal, so if
are sample magnetic instrument collected the suspended
variance of magnetic and nonmagnetic groups impurities.Thus protecting the water from pollution. Other
Fisher’s statistics shows advantages are,
|C||Reduce mortality and sick cases of flock.||3.||Het, T., 1988. H2O, 21(18): 517.|
|C||Increase in the feed conversion coefficient.||4.||Welder, B. and E.P. Partridge, 1954. Industerial and|
|C||Increase in the performance efficiency factor.||Engineering Chemistry, 46: 954.|
|C||The European production efficiency factor and||5.||Smith, C., P. Coetzz and J. Meyers, 2002. Water SA,|
|livability are increased significantly.||29(3).|
|C||Test results after two periods of poultry showed that||6.||Szkatula, A., M. Balanda and M. Kopec, 2002.|
|magnetic instrument works satisfactory under Iran||European Physical J. App. Phy., 18: 41-49.|
|conditions and it fitted to the installation system of||7.||Pilipenko, A.T., 1991. Methods of scale preventation|
|poultry, the life span of the pipeline could be||in desalination of saline waters, Khimiya.i.|
|increased. So the uses of advantages are above,||Technologiya Vody, 13(11): 996.|
|consequently the magnetic device should be used to||8.||Donaldson, 1990. Scaling down the water problem,|
|the pipeline system in poultry using water with||Chemistry in Britain, pp: 209.|
|different degrees of hardness. This water needs||9.||Strum, W. and J.P. Morgan, 1940. Aquatic Chemistry,|
|treatment.||Wiley, New York.|
|C||Statistical calculations are in good agreement with||10.||Eshaghi, Z. and M. Gholizadeh, 2004. Talenta,|
|our results.||64(2): 558.|
|11.||Gholizadeh, M., H. Arabshahi and R. Benam, 2005.|
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Int. J. App. Chem., 1: 84.
12. Coey, J.M.D., 2000. Magnetic Water Treatment. The authors are grateful for partial supports of this J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 209: 71.
work by Tarbiat Moallem University of Sabzevar and 13. Baker, J.S. and S.J. Judd, 1996. Water Res., pp: 247. Azad University of Sabzevar. 14. Baker, J.S. and S.A. Parsons, 1996. Industrial process
Water Treatment., pp: 36.
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