A comparison of water treatment methods on plant growth

Super Imploder

The Fractal Water Super Imploder Vortex Magnetic System

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Gerry Collins & Sal Collins

Toronto

New South Wales

Australia

Aim :

to compare the effects of four different water treatment methods on plant yield in terms of germination success rate and mass upon harvesting.

Materials and Methods :

Collection and storage of water samples derived by four water treatment methods

Four different water treatment methods of municipal mains water were selected for comparison in Toronto, New South Wales, Australia. Municipal mains water is supplied by Hunter Water Corporation, 36 Honeysuckle Drive, Newcastle, New South Wales 2300 Australia.

The municipal mains water pressure for the duration of the experiment varied between 70 pounds per square inch (psi) and 110 psi.

On the property, municipal mains water is first passed through a pressure limiting valve (Photograph 1) which reduces the mains water pressure to 350 kilopascals (approximately 51 psi) and subsequently through two 5-micron filters placed in series (Photograph 2).

For this study, water samples collected directly after the second 5-micron filter (without further treatment) were termed “Town Water” (Photograph 3). Containers which received Town Water are labelled “①” in photographs.

Further water treatment of Town Water by three different methods produced three more types of water samples for comparison (Table 1).

The Super Imploder is manufactured by Fractal Water, Connecticut, USA. One Super Imploder was connected in series directly after the second 5-micron filter. Water samples collected after the Super Imploder were termed “Super Imploded Water” (Photograph 4). Containers which received Super Imploded Water are labelled “②” in photographs.

Two Super Imploders were connected in series directly after the second 5-micron filter. Water samples collected after the two Super Imploders were termed “Twice Super Imploded Water” (Photographs 5). Containers which received Twice Super Imploded Water are labelled “③” in photographs.

The Grander domestic mains water in-line water revitaliser is manufactured by Innutec GmbH, Jochberg in Tyrol, Austria. The Grander domestic mains water in-line water revitaliser was connected in series directly after the second 5-micron filter. Water samples collected after the Grander domestic mains water in-line water revitaliser were termed “Grander Water” (Photograph 6). Containers which received Grander Water are labelled “④” in photographs.

Water treatment method Description of treated water Label of treated water(as seen in photographs)
Super Imploder Super Imploded Water
two Super Imploders set in series Twice Super Imploded Water
Grander domestic mains water in-line water revitaliser Grander Water

The study commenced on 21 July 2014 (Day 1) and completed on 26 October 2014 (Day 98).

On Day 1, a 20 litre water sample of each of the four water treatment methods was collected in a respectively labelled 20 litre plastic storage water bottle (Photographs 3, 4, 5 and 6). The four 20 litre plastic storage water bottles were stored 3 metres apart from each other for the duration of the experiment.

Once collected all water samples used in this experiment were kept free of direct contact with any metal.

All white hose and all light blue hose seen in the photographs are drinking quality water hose.

C:\Documents\GC\Dan's plant studies\E. Pak Choi - start approx Feb - April  2014\4a. pics of plumbing (12-1.30pm) NB. shadows start @ 12pm!\1. mains water pressure limiting valve.JPG C:\Documents\GC\Dan's plant studies\E. Pak Choi - start approx Feb - April  2014\2. new plumbing (all AJ)\Photograph 2. Top view of two 5-micron filters in series and Super Imploder.JPG

C:\Documents\GC\Dan's plant studies\E. Pak Choi - start approx Feb - April  2014\2. new plumbing (all AJ)\Photograph 3. Collection of Town Water.JPG C:\Documents\GC\Dan's plant studies\E. Pak Choi - start approx Feb - April  2014\2. new plumbing (all AJ)\Photograph 4. Collection of Super Imploded Water.JPG

C:\Documents\GC\Dan's plant studies\E. Pak Choi - start approx Feb - April  2014\2. new plumbing (all AJ)\Photograph 5. Collection of Twice Super Imploded Water.JPG C:\Documents\GC\Dan's plant studies\E. Pak Choi - start approx Feb - April  2014\2. new plumbing (all AJ)\Photograph 6. Collection of Grander Water.JPG

Selection of seed type

Pak choi seeds were selected for this study (Table 2).

Pak choi seeds
Botanical nameBrandProducerSow Before Date Brassica rapa var. chinensisMr. Fothergill’sMr. Fothergill’s Seeds Pty Ltd.,15B Walker Street,

South Windsor, New South Wales 2756

Australia

August 2015

Pak choi is also sometimes known as pak choy, buk choi, buk choy, bok choi, bok choy, Chinese cabbage, spoon cabbage, Chinese chard, Chinese mustard, celery mustard and field mustard.

Preparation of the growing medium in pots

Eight like plastic pot and saucer sets were used in this study.

Each pot was filled with a 2 cm surface layer of seed raising mix on top of a premium potting mix. The two layers in each pot were then lightly condensed. The products chosen were Yates Seed Raising Mix and Yates Premium Potting Mix (Yates Australia, 1 Gow Street, Padstow, New South Wales 2211, Australia).

Labelling of pots

Two pots received only Town Water for the duration of the experiment and were labelled “① 1” and “① 2”.

Two pots received only Super Imploded Water for the duration of the experiment and were labelled “② 1” and “② 2”.

Two pots received only Twice Super Imploded Water for the duration of the experiment and were labelled “③ 1” and “③ 2”.

Two pots received only Grander Water for the duration of the experiment and were labelled “④ 1” and “④ 2”.

Sowing of seeds

On Day 1, two Pak choi seeds were sown into each pot’s layer of seed raising mix. The eight pots (Photograph 7) were kept in a greenhouse with minimal exposure to insects and without exposure to rain for the duration of the experiment.

C:\Documents\GC\Dan's plant studies\E. Pak Choi - start approx Feb - April  2014\3. day 1 (all AJ)\Photograph 7. Pots on day 1.JPG

Delivery of water samples to the pots

Four jugs were individually labelled, one for each of the four water treatment methods (Photograph 8).

The dedicated jugs were used to transfer water periodically from the four 20 litre plastic storage water bottles to the pots and saucers.

C:\Users\Phi\Dan's plant studies\C. Pak choi & sage - start 26 Sep 2013\2. photos - only SOME have been AUTOADJUSTED !\Photograph 16. Four measuring jugs, one dedicated to each water type.JPG

Watering schedule

On Day 1 each pot was saturated with its designated water type until water overflowed its saucer.

The soil in each pot was kept moist throughout the duration of the experiment by over-filling the saucers of all eight pots just prior to any saucer becoming completely dry.

Photographs

Photographs were taken on Day 21 (Photographs 9, 10 and 11).

C:\Documents\GC\Dan's plant studies\E. Pak Choi - start approx Feb - April  2014\5. Day ~ 28 (all AJ)\Photograph 9. pots 1-8 on day ~28.JPG

C:\Documents\GC\Dan's plant studies\E. Pak Choi - start approx Feb - April  2014\5. Day ~ 28 (all AJ)\Photograph 10. close up view of pots 1-4 on day ~28.JPG C:\Documents\GC\Dan's plant studies\E. Pak Choi - start approx Feb - April  2014\5. Day ~ 28 (all AJ)\Photograph 11. close up view of pots 5-8 on day ~28.JPG

Two seedlings have emerged in each of pots ① 2, ② 1, ② 2, ③ 1, ③ 2 and ④ 1.

Photographs were taken on Day 35 (Photographs 12, 13 and 14).

C:\Documents\GC\Dan's plant studies\E. Pak Choi - start approx Feb - April  2014\6. Day ~ 35 (don't AJ)!(all wet surf soil, 20ml in bases)\Photograph 12. pots 1-8 on day ~35.JPG

C:\Documents\GC\Dan's plant studies\E. Pak Choi - start approx Feb - April  2014\6. Day ~ 35 (don't AJ)!(all wet surf soil, 20ml in bases)\Photograph 13. close up view of pots 1-4 on day ~35.JPG C:\Documents\GC\Dan's plant studies\E. Pak Choi - start approx Feb - April  2014\6. Day ~ 35 (don't AJ)!(all wet surf soil, 20ml in bases)\Photograph 14. close up view of pots 5-8 on day ~35.JPG

Photographs were taken on Day 49 (Photographs 15, 16 and 17).

C:\Documents\GC\Dan's plant studies\E. Pak Choi - start approx Feb - April  2014\7d. PURPLE Day ~ 42 (not AJ) (40ml in bases)\1 PURPLE.JPG

C:\Documents\GC\Dan's plant studies\E. Pak Choi - start approx Feb - April  2014\7d. PURPLE Day ~ 42 (not AJ) (40ml in bases)\2 PURPLE.JPG C:\Documents\GC\Dan's plant studies\E. Pak Choi - start approx Feb - April  2014\7d. PURPLE Day ~ 42 (not AJ) (40ml in bases)\3 PURPLE.JPG

Photographs were taken on Day 63 (Photographs 18, 19 and 20).

C:\Documents\GC\Dan's plant studies\E. Pak Choi - start approx Feb - April  2014\10. Day ~60 (not AJ) (40ml in bases)\Photograph 18. Eight pots on Day ~60.JPG

C:\Documents\GC\Dan's plant studies\E. Pak Choi - start approx Feb - April  2014\10. Day ~60 (not AJ) (40ml in bases)\Photograph 19. Close up view of pots ① 1, ① 2, ② 1 and ② 2 on Day ~60.JPG C:\Documents\GC\Dan's plant studies\E. Pak Choi - start approx Feb - April  2014\10. Day ~60 (not AJ) (40ml in bases)\Photograph 20. Close up view of pots ③ 1, ③ 2, ④ 1 and ④ 2 on Day ~60.JPG

Photographs were taken on Day 98 (Photographs 21, 22 and 23).

C:\Documents\GC\Dan's plant studies\E. Pak Choi - start approx Feb - April  2014\12. Day ~90 (not AJ) (no water in bases)\Photograph 21. Eight pots on Day ~90.JPG

C:\Documents\GC\Dan's plant studies\E. Pak Choi - start approx Feb - April  2014\12. Day ~90 (not AJ) (no water in bases)\Photograph 22. Close up view of pots ① 1, ① 2, ② 1 and ② 2 on Day ~90.JPG C:\Documents\GC\Dan's plant studies\E. Pak Choi - start approx Feb - April  2014\12. Day ~90 (not AJ) (no water in bases)\Photograph 23. Close up view of pots ③ 1, ③ 2, ④ 1 and ④ 2 on Day ~90.JPG

By Day 98 two plants had appeared in each of pots ① 2, ② 1, ② 2, ③ 1, ③ 2 and ④ 1 and one plant had appeared in each of pots ① 1 and ④ 2.

Results :

1. Of the 16 seeds sown on Day 1 of this study, 14 seeds had germinated by Day 98.

The seed germination rates associated with the use of Town Water, Super Imploded Water, Twice Super Imploded Water and Grander Water were respectively, 75%, 100%, 100% and 75%. Seed germination rates for each of the four different water treatment methods are shown in Table 3.

Description oftreated water Number of seeds which were sown on Day 1 Number of seeds which germinated by Day 98 Percentage of seeds which germinated by Day 98
Town Water 4 3 75
Super Imploded Water 4 4 100
Twice Super Imploded Water 4 4 100
Grander Water 4 3 75

2. On Day 98, each of the 14 mature plants was harvested and its above-ground mass immediately recorded.

The mass of each plant immediately after harvesting is given in Table 4 and does not include its root mass.

Label of pot Number of plants Mass of first plant (grams) Mass of second plant (grams)
① 1 1 99 not applicable
① 2 2 118 112
② 1 2 148 147
② 2 2 151 149
③ 1 2 158 154
③ 2 2 154 152
④ 1 2 126 122
④ 2 1 126 not applicable

3. Average mass of plants for each of the four different water treatment methods is given in Table 5.

The average masses of plants grown using Town Water, Super Imploded Water, Twice Super Imploded Water and Grander Water were respectively 109.7 grams, 148.8 grams, 154.5 grams and 124.7 grams.

The percentage increases in the average masses of plants grown using Super Imploded Water, Twice Super Imploded Water and Grander Water compared to the average mass of plants grown using Town Water are expressed as Additional plant yield in Table 5.

Description oftreated water Total number of plants Total mass of plants (grams) Average mass of plants (grams) Additional plant yield (%)
Town Water 3 329 109.7 not applicable
Super Imploded Water 4 595 148.8 35.6
Twice Super Imploded Water 4 618 154.5 40.8
Grander Water 3 374 124.7 13.7

Conclusions :

In this study, higher seed germination rates were associated with the use of both Super Imploded Water and Twice Super Imploded Water than with Town Water and Grander Water.

Further, average plant mass at harvesting was highest for plants grown using Twice Super Imploded Water, followed by plants grown using Super Imploded Water, followed by plants grown using Grander Water, followed by plants grown using Town Water.